Publications in English

NIPV has made an English translation of a selection of case studies, research reports and other publications.

The operational domain of the Netherlands Institute for Public Safety (NIPV) is the Netherlands, therefore most of our publications are in Dutch. However, NIPV has translated a selection of case studies, research reports and publications on fire safety and firefighting into English.

Fire safety

Fire safety of indoor car parks accommodating electrically powered vehicles (2021)

This paper discusses the safety and more specifically the fire safety of indoor car parks accommodating electric vehicles and of charging facilities in indoor car parks. It answers the question of how to deal with the increase in electric vehicles in indoor car parks from a fire prevention and repression perspective. This paper provides guidance for fire safety advisers and those combating incidents who work for the security regions. Of course, other parties involved in the development, construction and operation of indoor car parks can also use this paper.

Basis for Fire Safety (2018)

This document was originally written based on the situation regarding fire safety in the Netherlands, but was soon found to be applicable to situations outside the Netherlands as well. The approach to fire safety as described in this document can therefore be applied universally. It describes the backgrounds and foundations of fire protection measures and facilities.

Please download the document below.

Smoke propagation in residential buildings (2019)

Smoke propagation is a widely reported problem that raises fundamental questions about its consequences for fire safety, particularly for vulnerable groups, including the elderly. In this study the effect of smoke propagation on the possibility of escape and survivability in the event of fire was examined through field experiments (19 tests) in a residential building with internal corridors.

Fire safety of upholstered furniture and mattresses (from 2017)

In 2016 the Institute for Safety and a retailer started a co-operation with the purpose to initiate a new approach towards product requirements for upholstered furniture and mattresses. Those requirements are meant to improve consumer safety, taking into account current living situations and current research on domestic fire safety. The overall goal is to improve domestic fire safety through safer home furnishing products.

Fire safety of fire safe cigarettes (2017)

This study shows that fire-safe cigarettes play only a limited role in reducing the number of smoking-related fire deaths, as there are several other factors that influence the probability of dying in fires caused by smoking.

Fire safety and the ageing population (2016)

In 2015 the Fire Service Academy and the Dutch Burns Foundation studied the influence of the ageing of the population on fire safety, and the fact that elderly people generally live independently on their own for a longer time than in previous years. This resulted in a numer of extensive reports. A summary of these reports has been translated into English.

Hydrogen cars in parking garages (2021)

The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management commissioned NIPV to investigate the safety aspects of hydrogen cars in parking garages. The following questions have been been answered in this report:

  1. To what extent do incident scenarios involving hydrogen cars in parking garages result in the release of hydrogen, and what are the effects of this release?
  2. What are the conditions that determine the nature and significance of these effects?
  3. What is known about the probability of the release of hydrogen in a parking garage and the probability of that released hydrogen being ignited?


Wildfire Signal ’23 (2023)

In the past years, wildfires have been both inside as outside The Netherlands a very current topic. The question is how, also due to climate change, the wildfire risk in The Netherlands is developing. This main research question is divided in a number of sub-questions:

  1. How is the susceptibility for the occurrence of wildfires changing?
  2. How is the susceptibility for the development of wildfires changing?
  3. How is the impact of wildfires changing?

Please download the document below.

A renewed view on firefighting (2018)

The basic principles of the view as laid out in this document help firefighters to carry out safe and effective attacks. This document combines the results of recent studies by NIPV, observations of actual fires, international investigations and the principles of fire safety engineering.

Fire service doctrine (2014)

The fire service doctrine is a theory that supports the skills needed to safely and effectively conduct firefighting operations. The quadrant model is a tool for deciding which tactic to use when fighting a fire in a building.

Situational incident command in the fire service (2017)

This study provides a renewed understanding of the way in which large-scale incidents are managed and how to improve this management. It suggests to adjust the current type of incident command, in a way that fits in with actual practice. The integration of tools that create a ‘forgiving infrastructure’ for the ‘fallibility’ of the people in the system is a real innovation.

Smoke cooling (from 2021)

Experimental research into the effect of the 3D pulse method and the arc method on smoke cooling and a review of the literature on smoke cooling and nozzle techniques.

Fire gas ignition/smoke explosions (2020)

The goal of this study was to determine whether smoke gas ignition (inertisation) can be prevented by the fire service using the existing techniques for smoke gas cooling.

Firefighting in tunnels (2020)

The stability of road tunnels in the Netherlands is not guaranteed in the event of extreme fires. This reduced fire resistance has consequences for the investigation by the officer-in-charge immediately after the report (“will the first fire brigade unit enter the tunnel or not?”) and for the decision to deploy (“will the first fire brigade unit enter the incident tube or not?”). This document presents This document presents some useful tools developed for the officer-in-charge to negotiate these problems (decision diagram and operational capability table) as well as the process of their creation.

Smoke as an occupational risk in the fire service (2015)

Review of the literature on the possible occurrence of certain forms of cancer among firefighters in relation to fire-fighting activities. For this purpose, various databases with scientific literature have been consulted.

Volunteer firefighting in the Netherlands (2019)

The Fire Service in the Netherlands consists of more than 28,000 firefighters. Nearly 80 percent of all Dutch firefighters are volunteers and have other primary employment.

Several developments on multiple levels (society, organisation, individual) are identified that may lead to challenges in recruiting and retaining volunteer firefighters, and may thereby impact the vitality of the current organisation model. These developments raise the following important question: How can the organisation model of the Netherlands Fire Service keep building upon volunteers in the future and be sustainable and robust at the same time?

Energy transition

Exploration of future battery types and safety (2023)

The goal of this study is to outline the development of new batteries from a safety perspective and look ahead for their impact on companies, the fire service and the Dutch safety regions. To achieve this goal, the study was conducted in three phases: 1) Gathering background knowledge, 2) Literature review: and 3) Safety analysis.

Factsheet Incidents with alternative fuel vehicles. Annual report

This factsheet provides a picture of the number and type of incidents involving alternative fuel vehicles (AFV). Other characteristics are also considered, such as the type of propulsion, the type of AFV, the resources used and the number of victims. The figures are related to incidents in the Netherlands where the fire brigade was deployed.

Booklet Energy transition for
first responders (2023)

As a fire brigade, how do you respond to incidents involving new energy carriers, such as LNG, batteries and hydrogen? This booklet provides a compilation of the main risks and action perspectives.

Poster Submerging container and its possible alternatives (2023)

LNG guidelines (2016)

The fire brigades and other emergency response organizations use protocol sheets to provide condensed information about hazardous substances and instructions for field commanders they can use when arriving at an incident. To cover the various circumstances in which LNG can cause accidents, a series of six protocol sheets has been developed.

Protective clothing

Proceedings of the European Conference on Protective Clothing (ECPC) (2023)

In 2023 ECPC has been held in The Netherlands at NIPV. The aim of the conference is to promote research and cooperation in the area of personal protection. A functional and comfortable use of protective clothing is a key element for a successful implementation of preventive and protective measures in the workplaces. The conference has become a platform to disseminate, to exchange and to discuss the results of research, project developments and implementation programmes related to protective clothing, with a strong focus on user protection and well-being. Theme of ECPC2023 is: Protection challenges in a changing world.